Sudan is the largest African country by area. The country is situated at a crossroads between the Horn of Africa and the Middle East. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, Kenya and Uganda to the southeast, Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. It is the tenth largest country in the world by area.
Official Name: The Republic of the Sudan
Capital: Khartoum, 15°31′N, 32°35′E
Official languages: Arabic, English
Government: Government of National Unity
Egypt and the UK : 1st January 1956
Total Area: 1 million sq mile
(estimate 2009.) 42,272,000
Currency: Sudanese pound
Time zone: GMT+3 hours
Sudan is mainly composed of extensive plains or ironstone soils in the South, clay in the central regions and sand in the North and West. There are few mountainous areas of which the principal ones are the Imatong in the South, Jebel Marra in the West, and the Red Sea Hilis'lin the East.
Out of the 13 mammalian orders in Africa, 12 can be found in Sudan. 1,931 species of birds were recorded in Sudan.. "Nilotic" fauna, (24 families and 106 species). Similarly, the insect fauna estimated at least 100 species of insect pests in Sudan.
As Sudan lies wholly within the tropics, it has a tropical climate. The greater part of the country falls under the influence of the trade winds; hence, it has generally hot, rainy summers and warm, dry winters. Because of its huge area, there is a great variation in rain, where it scarcely rains in the north; the average rainfall is 25 mm. Whereas in the south it Gabal Marra reaches up to 1500mm
The main rainy season is July to September but occasional showers fall in May- June particularly in the higher rainfall areas in the South. The Red Sea Hills receive Monsoon rains during the months of October and November
March through June are characterized by high temperatures, reaching up to 42 degrees Centigrade at daytime and 27 degrees Centigrade during the night. July through October are mild and benign, with the commencement of the rainy season. November through February are temperate with short cold breezy spells, bringing the temperature to 30 degrees Centigrade at daytime and to less than 16 degrees Centigrade at night.
The waters of the Nile gather from many countries - Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Uganda and Ethiopia, form the River Nile
White Nile and Blue Nile are the main features of the country, on their banks civilization has flourished during ancient times.
The three towns Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North located at the junction of the Blue and White Niles are the heart of urban Sudan with a population estimated at three and half million.
For the 1,880 miles from Khartoum to the Mediterranean, it receives no perennial tributaries and is believed to be the longest stretch of river in the world.
Sudan is rich in natural resources, featured as:
Vast arable lands, suitable for cultivation, estimated at 200 million feddans.
Extensive areas of forests, acacia trees and pastures, occupying almost 250 million feddans.
A large reserve of cattle and sheep estimated at more than 100 million heads, with cattle estimated at 30 million, sheep 37 million, goats 33 million and camels 3 million.
Huge water resources in terms of river waters, rainfall together with vast underground water reservoirs.
The diverse climatic conditions across all parts of the country, which makes it suitable for the cultivation of various crops and fruits the whole year round.
Rich mineral resources, which have not been fully exploited or explored up to date.
In addition to petroleum and natural gas, they include: gold, silver, chrome, asbestos, manganese, gypsum, mica, zinc, iron, lead, uranium, copper, kaolin, cobalt, granite, nickel and tin.
There are more than 300 tribes in Sudan. The people come from numerous different ethnic backgrounds, mainly Arab in the north, and African in the south. About 60 per cent of the population are Muslim, 25 per cent are Animist, and 15 per cent Christian.
Arabic is the official language, but there are more than 100 tribal languages, many of which are spoken by large numbers of people.
In my opinion the most special thing about Sudan among all these is his kind and friendly people.
I invite all my friends in My EC to visit us :))
For more Information please visit my resources :
Website of the Embassy of the Republic of the Sudan-London